I've never had anything dissapear on me from storing it in random places. I do tend to use places I have some propriatary use over, but not always.
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After that I just stored stuff on the ground in there, worked fine except for the occasional item that would glitch through the floor.
My experience has been that if you put things in containers that do not belong to you they will get deleted eventually, but if you just drop them on the ground they are fine. I literally had a boat-load of stuff stored in the boat in the imperial city waterfront. There is a cool quest related to it. When you finish it, the boat is basically yours, but again, I wouldn't risk using the chests and other containers. I just threw everything on the bed and floor, and kinda lived there until I had a house.
Actually, I forgot about this trick too: If you get either of the immortal horses (Shadowmere or the Unicorn) you can knock them unconscious and store your loot inside of thier corpse. Then after they regain consciousness, you can ride them as usual and knock them out again and reverse the process when you need to get your loot back.